International & National Policies

The technological paradigm of the digital economy forms new markets that give rise to new regulatory measures and subjects for control, including artificial intelligence (AI). The above trend primarily concerns the formation of technologies that will radically change the sustainable market economy, forcing professionals out of different areas.[1]Artificial Intelligence (AI) will revolutionise and disrupt practically every industry. It will impact products and services but also the everyday lives of citizens worldwide, bringing about both socio-economic opportunities and challenges which need to be addressed early on.[2]

In that spirit of global analysis, the second AI Index report[3] finds that commercial and research work in AI, as well as funding, is exploding pretty much everywhere on the planet. There’s an especially high concentration in Europe and Asia, with China, Japan, and South Korea leading Eastern countries in AI research paper publication, university enrollment, and patent applications. In fact, Europe is the largest publisher of AI papers, with 28 percent of all AI-related publications last year. China is close behind with 25 percent, while North America is responsible for 17 percent.[4]While global jurisdictions differ significantly in their regulatory approaches towards AI, they all share the ultimate goal of securing for themselves a top spot in this emerging field.[5]

Various countries worldwide have recognized that AI would play a significant role in the lives of individuals and have hence attempted to lay down a robust policy framework for the regulation as well as promotion of AI technologies.  In the past years, Canada, China, Denmark, the EU Commission, Finland, France, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Nordic-Baltic region, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, the UAE, and the UK have all released strategies to promote the use and development of AI. No two strategies are alike, with each focusing on different aspects of AI policy: scientific research, talent development, skills and education, public and private sector adoption, ethics and inclusion, standards and regulations, and data and digital infrastructure.[6] Given below is a list of all national and international strategies and initiatives regarding AI:

  • International Strategies and Policies[7]

  • European Union: There is a European AI Alliance that has established an overarching approach to AI and an agreement to cooperate among European countries.
  • Nordic-Baltic Region: Ministers from the Nordic-Baltic region issued a declaration of collaboration on AI.
  • United Nations: The UN has numerous ongoing initiatives related to AI including providing guidance on data privacy and on autonomous weapons.
  • AI Agreement Between UAE and India: The UAE Minister for AI and Invest India signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish a partnership.
  • International Study Group of Artificial Intelligence: France and Canada are developing a task force to make recommendations on the scope and implementation of the international study group.
  • Charlevoix Common Vision for the Future of Artificial Intelligence: Leaders of the G7 agreed to a shared set of commitments for AI in Charlevoix, Canada.
  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development: convened a multi-stakeholder discussion in October 2017, “AI: Intelligent Machines, smart policies”.

  • National Strategies and Policies[8]

  • Australia: Australia has dedicated $29.9 million in the country’s annual budget to promote and guide the development of AI.
  • Austria: Austria has an advisory Robot Council that is developing a national AI strategy.
  • Canada: Canada has a national AI strategy called the Pan-Canadian Artificial Intelligence Strategy.
  • China: China has a national AI strategy, defined under the “New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan.”
  • Denmark: Denmark has a digital strategy that includes a focus on AI along with other technologies.
  • Estonia: Estonia is developing a legal framework for the use of AI in its country, including a bill on AI liability.
  • Finland: Finland has an Artificial Intelligence Programme guided by a steering group under the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment.
  • France: France has a national strategy for AI called “AI for Humanity,” which is outlined in the “Villani Report”.
  • Germany: The German Government adopted its Artificial Intelligence Strategy in November 2018.
  • India: India defined a national policy on AI in a working paper titled, “National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence #AIforAll.”
  • Ireland: The Irish government has hosted AI workshops and launched a national AI Masters program.
  • Italy: Italy has an interdisciplinary AI Task Force launched by the Agency for Digital Italy.
  • Japan: Japan has an “Artificial Intelligence Technology Strategy” and has also included AI in its “integrated innovation strategy.”
  • Kenya: The Kenyan government created a Blockchain & Artificial Intelligence task force.
  • Malaysia: The Malaysian government is developing a National Artificial Intelligence Framework, and establishing Digital Transformation Labs.
  • Mexico: The Mexican government supported the creation of the white paper, “Towards an AI Strategy in Mexico: Harnessing the AI Revolution.”
  • Russia: The Russian government is currently developing an AI R&D national strategy.
  • Singapore: Singapore has a national AI program called AI Singapore and is establishing an AI ethics advisory council.
  • Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia was the first country to grant citizenship to a robot.
  • South Korea: South Korea has an Artificial Intelligence Information Industry Development Strategy.
  • Sweden: The Swedish government has released a “National Approach for Artificial Intelligence.”
  • United Arab Emirates: The UAE has a national strategy for AI and was the first country to name an AI Minister.
  • United States of America: The US launched the American AI Initiative February 2019.
  • United Kingdom: The UK government launched a Sector Deal for AI to advance the UK’s ambitions in AI consistent with its Industrial Strategy, and taking into account the advice of the Parliament’s Select Committee on AI.

[1]Atabekov, A. and Yastrebov, O., 2018. Legal Status of Artificial Intelligence Across Countries: Legislation on the Move. European Research Studies Journal21(4), pp.773-782

[2]FTI Consulting, 2018.Artificial Intelligence: The Global Policy Response To AI

[3]http://cdn.aiindex.org/2018/AI%20Index%202018%20Annual%20Report.pdf

[4]Statt, N. (2018). The AI boom is happening all over the world, and it’s accelerating quickly. [online] The Verge. Available at: https://www.theverge.com/2018/12/12/18136929/artificial-intelligence-ai-index-report-2018-machine-learning-global-progress-research [Accessed 12 Jun. 2019].

[5]Ibid.

[6]Dutton, T. (2018). An Overview of National AI Strategies.

[online]

Medium. Available at: https://medium.com/politics-ai/an-overview-of-national-ai-strategies-2a70ec6edfd [Accessed 12 Jun. 2019].

[7]Future of Life Institute.(2019). National and International AI Strategies – Future of Life Institute. [online] Available at: https://futureoflife.org/national-international-ai-strategies/ [Accessed 12 Jun. 2019].

[8] Ibid.